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Biopharmaceutical analyses

 

Heterogeneity

Due to the feasible chemical modification of amino acids, proteins undergo various kinds of post-translational modifications (PTMs), which make them inherently heterogenous. PTMs cannot usually be predicted from the gene sequence and since they have significant impact on proper function of a specific protein, they need to be thoroughly evaluated.

List of currently available analytical techniques

  • LC-MS/MS 
    • presence of S-S bridges
    • oxidation
    • modification of N-terminus
  • Capillary electrophoresis
    • oxidation
    • glycosylation
  • Gel electrophoresis
    • IE - glycosylation